Volume 3 Issue 3 - 2018
Present Farming and Agriculture Market Scenario of Uttar Dinajpur District
1Bidhan Chandra Agricultural University, Mohanpur, West Bengal
2Department of Botany, Patna University
*Corresponding Author: Avinash Sharma, Bidhan Chandra Agricultural University, Mohanpur, West Bengal.
Received: June 06, 2018; Published: December 20, 2018
The uttar dinajpur district is bounded around Darjeeling district in the North, Purnea district of Bihar State in the West, Malda and Dakshin Dinajpur district in the South and Bangladesh in the east. This district consists of 9 blocks i.e. Chopra, Islampur, Kaliaganj, Hemtabad, Raiganj, Goalpokhar-I, Goalpokhar-II, Karandighi, and Itahar. The crop cultivation is monocropping system. The crops are cultivated into Sandy soils, Sandy Loam soils, Loamy soils, Clay Loam soils and Clay soils. The pollution, deforestation, natural calamities, extinct of useful trees or pollinators and industrialization are totally transformed cropping pattern of uttar dinajpur district. The present production of Rice, Maize, Mustard, Potato, Chilli, Brinjal, Jute, Tea and Pineapple are highest in the land. The modern agricultural tools like rotavator, single wheel hoe weeder and Multicrop thresher are currently used into agricultural land. These agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and farm machines or tools are provided by Government Corporation and private companies to supply chain like dealers or retailers. The private companies and the supply chain are affect village’s farmer for input prices. The government agriculture department and the media are not highlighting a schemes and projects to village’s farmer. Further, this will decline a lifestyle and income of village’s farmer.
Keywords: Rumptstad -2WT; Tractor hiring service; Partial budget; Break –even point
Uttar Dinajpur district was formed on 1st April, 1992 by division of the West Dinajpur district. It was included in the Jalpaiguri Division of the State. The geographical areas of Uttar Dinajpur district is 3140 km2. It is located between 26˚35’15” N and 25˚10’25” N latitude and 89˚0’30” E and 87˚48’37” longitude. This is bounded around Darjeeling district in the North, Purnea district of Bihar State in the West, Malda and Dakshin Dinajpur district in the South and Bangladesh in the east. The government administration has been constituted with 2 Sub-Divisions, 9 blocks, 9 police stations, 9 panchayat samities, 99 gram panchayats, 1422 inhabited villages, 1504 mouzas and 4 municipalities. The Headquarters of the district is located at Karnajora near Raiganj. The total population is 2638662 in which Male and Female gender are 1550219 or 1450630 (Census, 2011).
Most of the people of district are dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture. The agriculture land is used Gross cropped area 505.8 ha, Net sown area 241.3 ha and Area sown more than once 264.5 ha for farming. The field crops are cultivated into Sandy soils, Sandy Loam soils, Loamy soils, Clay Loam soils and Clay soils. The agro-climatic zone of district is Lower Gangetic Plain Region (III) that bounds New Alluvial Region and Old Alluvial Region (NARP). The agro ecological subzones are Assam or Bengal Plain, Hot Sub humid to Humid (Inclusion of per humid) Eco-Region, Eastern Plain and Hot Sub humid (moist) Eco-Region (ICAR). The district annual rainfall is 1857 mm. The SW monsoon and NW monsoon are entered late into the environment that affects crop ecology. The district farmers are irrigate land with Tanks, Ponds, Canal and Bore wells to overcome crop impact. The irrigated land maintains production and productivity of field crops.
The pattern of crop production is monocropping in district. This district consists of 9 blocks i.e. Chopra, Islampur, Kaliaganj, Hemtabad, Raiganj, Goalpokhar-I, Goalpokhar-II, Karandighi, and Itahar which cultivates cereal crops Rice, Wheat, Maize; oilseed crop Mustard; cash crops Tea, Jute; vegetable crops Potato, Chilli, Brinjal and fruit crops Pineapple, Banana, Mango. Chopra block grows Rice, Potato, Tea, Pineapple; Islampur block cultivates Maize, Potato and Mustard; Hemtabad block grows Rice, Maize, Mustard and Vegetables; Kaliaganj block sown Rice, Mustard and Vegetables; Raiganj block grows Rice, Maize, Jute and Vegetables; Goalpokhar block cultivates Rice, Maize and Potato and Karandighi block grows Rice or Mustard and Itahar block practices Paddy, Mustard or Jute. Since change of ambient weather of block, the current production of Rice, Maize, Mustard, Potato, Chilli, Brinjal, Jute, Tea and Pineapple are highest in the block. When disaster is stopped into the district then the upland farmers are practice Maize, Potato, Mustard, vegetables and the lowland farmers are cultivate Rice. Since innovations of farm machines or tools into area of agricultural engineering and farmers are used Rotavator, Single wheel hoe weeder or Multicrop thresher, weeding and harvesting in present trend.
The farmer purchases agriculture inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and farm machine or tools from supply chain like dealers and retailers. There are several factors that impacts farmer by private companies, supply chain, cropping patterns, mass communication and government corporation i.e.,
1. Effect of Agricultural Input to Farmer
The government sector has own agriculture input corporation in each state that provides certified input to supply chain. The government has licensed 3000 farmer producing companies that provide all kinds of agricultural inputs to supply chain. The supply chain provides input to farmers. The supply chain is never provided agricultural inputs of private company without schemes to farmer. The private companies are provide special voucher, gift and tour to supply chain for selling agricultural inputs. The supply chain aggressively sales input to farmer for special voucher, gift, and tour. The farmer purchases agricultural input without aware of feature and benefit. The harmful accident happens into input then private company is not assist to the farmer, according to private company guidelines and supply chain is also follow company guidelines. The private company and the government corporations are provide feature or function of agricultural input to farmer through programme but supply chain is provide improper information of input. The supply chain is keep agriculture inputs of one or more than company, they provides input of one or more than private company to farmers for earn income and advantages. The ultimate aim of private company and the supply chain is to generate income or profit with exploitation of farmers. The government of India and the state government are not put step to private agriculture company and supply chain for exploitation of farmer to agriculture inputs.
The farmers are bring raw materials into the market and sell raw materials to market through broker and agent. The farmers are received less income from broker and agent. An Indian business group ITC was started e-programme call e-choupals that will be returned right income of farmers for agriculture inputs. The renowned TATA company was initiated TATA Kisan Kendra that offers agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and farm equipments with affordable prices. Shriram consolidated Ltd. was started Hariyali Kisan Bazar project to farmers that aims to provide agri-inputs, financial services, market linkages, warehousing or commodity exchanges, household goods, dedicated scientists and experts. These developed companies have less number of single window and one-stop-shop. It has not provided low interest to the farmers. The company projects have not been outreached to rural areas.
2. Effect of agricultural input price to farmer
Farm inputs need to be available, affordable, accessible, and good quality. Seeds, fertilizers, and agro-chemicals, are essential for improving the productivity and incomes of smallholder farmers in developing countries (World Bank, 2007, 2013; FAO, 2013). Most of farm inputs are available in peri-urban areas where dealer shops are common. The economic activity and overall development is usually more advanced there than remote areas. The policy maker and the donor raises a farm input prices that focus predominantly on peri-urban areas will not reach the majority of those in the poorest and remotest rural areas(Belt., et al. 2015).
The government sector and the private sector are prepare the price of agricultural inputs. They sell inputs to supply chain. The supply chain sales agricultural inputs with high cost to farmer. So that, they could get more profit from farmer. The private company provides gift, voucher and tour to supply chain for selling more agricultural inputs. The supply chain sells inputs to farmers with stress. When demand of agriculture input rises among farmer then the private company is increase the rate of inputs that affects the farmer budget. The farmer sells raw material into gilt market then they are not receive accurate government Minimum support price (MSP). The government is not taken action on private company and supply chain to exploitation of framer for input prices.
3. Irregular distribution of Government agriculture subsidy, scheme and project
Agricultural subsidies are of two kinds: investment subsidies and input subsidies. Investment subsidies aim to improve the farm productivity on sustainable level by encouraging farmers to develop infrastructural facilities like installation of drip irrigation system, construction of rain water harvesting system, and acquiring farm implements. The input subsidies are provided primarily through subsidizing fertilizers, irrigation water, and power (electricity) used for irrigation and other agricultural purposes. From time to time, input subsidies have also been provided on seeds, as well as on herbicides and pesticides. Subsidies are among the most powerful instrument for manipulating or balancing the growth rate of production and trade in various sectors for an equitable distribution of income for protection of weaker sections of the society. The biggest problem in agricultural subsidy is its targeting to the deserving beneficiaries. Only 30 percent subsidies go to marginal, small, and medium farmers. The overall rate of agricultural production is decreasing and production cost is increasing. (Rajwinder and Manisha, 2012; Arora, 2013).
The state government and the central government are agricultural scheme to farmers. This scheme is not reach to block villages. Most of the village farmers are not aware about government scheme. The farmers are about scheme then they do not understand the proper procedure of scheme. The state government is not provide campaign and hand bill to farmers into the villages. When disaster like drought, flood, crop falling and improper fruiting of field crops are incur into the block villages. The state government and the central government are allocate contingency to farmers but the subsidy is not distributed properly among farmer. The government department is grant subsidy to selected framers who can provide commission to department employees. The faith of farmers is diminishing from agriculture department and the agitation is increasing to the agriculture department.
The private agriculture company provides crop meeting, campaign, harvesting meeting and crop demonstration but the agriculture department do not offer crop meeting, campaign, harvesting meeting and crop demonstration. The agriculture department is never collaborate with private company for agriculture programme. The department provides irregular report to block villages and the state government and the central government does not take action sincerely of block report.
4. Loss of cropping patterns among village farmer
Cropping patterns based on climate and land capability are sustainable. Climate change will likely to cause further problems in our crop production and is likely to become the most important environmental issue in the 21st century. The climate change is increasing a loss of genetic diversity that are forcing farmer to change crop patterns. The farmers are cultivate High Yielding Varieties (HYV) and Hybrids instead of traditional varieties or cultivars(Shetty., et al. 2007; Shekara., et al. 2016).
The farmers were cultivate rice, wheat, jute, sugarcane, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, chilli, tomato etc into block villages at well weather and climate conditions. The private agriculture company was provide all kinds of seed to supply chain. The village industrialization and pollution are transformed agriculture patterns of block villages or the natural calamities like flood and drought are totally transit crop pattern. The natural calamities and pollution are bring massive transformation into climate or weather conditions. The reservoirs like lake, river and pond are decline in block villages and the underground water is mitigating slowly in uttar dinajpur district. Deforestation provides irregularity into SW monsoon and NW monsoon. This district has lost beneficial trees like mango, jackfruit, and eucalyptus that indicate rainfall. The loss of animal habitat and the pollinator habitat that transforms plant physical factors, adaptation and cropping pattern of block villages. The villages farmer are cultivate mostly paddy, mustard, maize, okra, jute and tomato in present period. The government seed corporation and the private company have restricted a supply of seeds into the market. Massive transformation of cropping patterns has observed in block of Uttar dinajpur district.
5. Effect of Mass communication to farmer
The success of agricultural development programmes in developing countries largely depends on the nature and extent of use of mass media in mobilization of people for development. The planners in developing countries realize that the development of agriculture could be hastened with the effective use of mass media. It transfers modern agricultural technology to literate and illiterate farmers alike even in interior areas, within short time. Radios, Television have been acclaimed to be the most effective media for diffusing the scientific knowledge to the masses. Farm magazine are commonly used. It offers agricultural information among the literate farmers(Purushothaman., et al. 2003).
The crop diversity had been seen in block villages during past period. The production and the productivity were high in past years. The scientists, subject matter specialist (SMS) and media were communicate with village farmers. The scientists, subject matter specialist (SMS) and private company were conduct farmers meeting, fertilizer and pesticide application programme, crop demonstration and crop harvest meeting. The media was highlight a kharif and Rabi crops of farmer into several states. The scientists, SMS and Krishi Vigyana Kendra (KVK) were advice about Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Integrated Nutrient Management (INM), agronomic practices and implements. The media was highlight the farmers programme into the nation.
The mankind thinking is changed towards farmer in Modern period. The Indian people are follow modern lifestyle but they are not implement tangible agriculture projects for farmer. So that, the farmer revenue will be double into upcoming period. The scientists, the kvk, the agriculture department and the media are not organized programmes to farmer welfare. The scientists, the kvk, the agriculture department, the private companies are never implement tangible projects to the farmer welfare. The media is not highlight the present livelihood of farmers to government. The media is never debate on crop methods, natural disasters, irrigation mechanism, fertilizer or pesticide doses application, post harvest methods, crops CACP (Commission of agriculture costs and prices), global and Indian agriculture market. The media is never highlight the tangible project of the scientists, the kvk, the agriculture department and the private companies. The media is never interact with village farmers into good condition. They always interact with farmers into casual and disaster conditions. The media is lesser focus into rural area than urban area. This will decline agriculture development of block villages.
The present farming is differ than past farming. The transition of weather, climate and natural calamities is totally changed the farming of uttar dinajpur district. The farmers are affected with the policy of government department and private company. This policy is affected the income and lifestyle of farmers which makes farmer helpless. The media is never participate into highlighting a lifestyle and income of farmer. It highlights an event of natural calamities of farmers. The strategy of government department, private companies and media are declining the block farmers.
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Copyright: © 2018 Avinash sharma., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.