India is tending towards minimization of synthetic pesticide application in farms; a small fraction of worldwide consumption of synthetic pesticides, 3.75% only is shared by India (while USA and Europe share 25 and 45% respectively) with annual (2013-2014) usage value 0.5 kilogram hectare very lesser in comparison to 12 kilogram/hectare of the Asian Country Japan (De., et al. 2014). There are data for excessive uses of synthetic fertilizers for the period 2011-15like 1097.8 kilogram/hectare for Kuwait and very low uses like 15.2 kilogram/hectare for Russia, while that for India has been moderate, say 157.8 kilogram/hectare (World Bank data), Therefore there exists a high probability of finding non-detectable (in laboratory test reports) synthetic pesticide residues in food articles say 81.3% as per Indian food samples survey (Express News Service, 2015). However Japan, where pesticide usage is 24 times that of India, also competes in probability of finding non-detectable synthetic pesticide residues in foods, because Indian export food samples seldom face more EU border rejections due to pesticide contents in excess (The RASFF 05-25 January 2016, for example). It means Japan’s environmental factor is more vital than that of India due to which soil of Japan has more pesticide degrading capacity than that of India.
At this point the author of this paper wants to discuss the parameters required to assess the eco-friendliness of farming process and derive Environmental Factor for Soil’s Pesticide Degrading Capacity, EF spdc. These parameters are-
- Groundcover share:-The groundcover is defined as thickly growing plants or vegetations which cover the ground and protect topsoil from erosion. The grasses are naturally widespread groundcovers. The groundcover layer of a forest greatly contributes to environment ideally suiting to animals particularly reed, warbler, mouse and wren (Harris, 2010). The dense forests with more than 70% canopy cover and mid-dense forests with more than 40% and less than 70% canopy cover (including pastures) contribute a lot to ecology of a country. Its share in country landscape is the most vital eco-parameter. Soil’s pesticide degrading capacity or EFspdc seems to be proportional to % Groundcover minus % Bare Soil Area.
- Cropland and Mining Area share:-After harvesting a crop, the cropland of a country often remains bare till the next crop grows. So it would be appropriate to keep it in bare soil area. Mining area is basically bare soil area and shares a little in landscapes of both the countries Japan and India, hence is excluded.
- Infrastructure:-The housing infrastructure in Japan is vertical while that in India is almost horizontally expanded. Road infrastructure in Japan is compact enough while Indian roads have loose infrastructure. Japanese infrastructure covers lesser area compared to India due to compactness and perhaps is eco-friendlier. But here the point is how much infrastructure is bare soil area. For simplicity, it is assumed that infrastructure normally should not lead to bare soil area, hence is excluded.
- Soil Erosion Rate-It is the datum which tells how much soil per hectare per year a country loses due to bare soil area along with rain water and storms. Obviously EFspde should be inversely proportional to soil erosion rate.
- Mineral contents of soil – The mineral contents of soil are lost due to soil erosion. Therefore this issue seems to be part and parcel of soil erosion rate and hence is excluded.
EFspdc= K (% Groundcover - % Cropland)/(Soil Erosion Rate)
= 12kg /hectare/year
EFspd, India = K (% GC - % CL) /Ser = 2.25x103 (10-55)/16.4x103
= - 6kg/hectare/year (in round figure)
The value of K is hypothetically assigned to be 2.25x103 kg2/hectare2/year2
The hypothetical value for degradation constant K is based on the hypothesis that Japan fully utilizes soil’s pesticide degrading capacity, because soil erosion rates of both the Japan (having 68% dense and mid dense forest cover) and India (having only 10% dense and mid-dense forest cover) are in the range 10-20 tons per hectare per year. Therefore hypothetical value for K is obtained by using equation EFspdc, japan = annual per hectare pesticide application in Japan. However it should also not be forgotten that Japanese archipelago is situated on tectonic plates, seldom giving rise to tsunami which accelerates soil erosion. But it may be safely said that Japan can perhaps effectively reduce soil erosion rate and enrich natural resources if Japanese agriculture adopts traditional or organic way.
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