The Proximate composition was carried out at the Department of Animal Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Cowpea (Asomdwee variety) and maize (Abontem variety) seeds were obtained from the Crop Research Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research at Fumesua, Kumasi Ghana. The commercially available soft wheat flour was purchased from local suppliers at Kajetia market in Kumasi.
The samples were cleaned of foreign materials and milled into flour in a hammer mill and sieved through 75 μm. The flours were packaged in air-tight plastic containers and stored under laboratory condition until further analyses.
The proximate analysis of samples for moisture content, crude protein, ash and crude fiber was carried out on the flours using the standard methods described by (AOAC, 2002). Crude fat was extracted using the Soxhlet procedure with petroleum ether (60-80oC). Carbohydrate content was determined by difference.
All data collected on the proximate composition was analyzed using Statistix 9 statistical Package. Mean separation was done using LSD at 1% confidence intervals.
Significant differences (P<0.01) were observed among the flours in terms of the moisture content. The highest moisture content of (10.90%) was recorded by Asomdwee Cowpea flour. Soft wheat flour had the least moisture content (3.33%). The moisture content of Asomdwee cowpea was the highest and was significantly (P < 0.01) different from the others. The moisture content of abontem maize flour from this research (7.03%) was higher than (6.78%) reported by Owiah, (2013). The value of moisture content in this study for cowpea was higher than the (9.20%) for cowpea flours in Nigeria by (Arawande and Borokini, 2010). The moisture content of wheat flour was lower than the (11.60%) and (13.29%) recorded for buckwheat flour and refined wheat flours (Baljeet., et al. 2010) as well as (13.3%) for wheat flour as reported by (Ahmed and Campbell, 2012).
Ash content of (3.00%) was recorded by Asomdwee Cowpea flour and this represents the highest ash content of all the three samples. The least ash content value was (1.00%) and was recorded by soft wheat flour but there was no significant difference (p>0.01) between soft wheat and abontem maize flour. Cowpea flour recorded the highest ash content value (3.00%). The ash content of soft wheat flour (1.00%) was higher than the 0.89% reported by Dewi (2010).
It was observed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.01) between wheat and cowpea flours. Abontem maize had the highest crude fat content (2.83%) whereas cowpea flour had (1.00%) representing the lowest fat content. The fat content for abontem maize flour was within the range (2.2–5.7 %) recommended for fat content of maize from several publications (Cortez and Wild-Altamirano, 1972). Fat content of (2.83%) for Abontem maize flour in this research was similar to (2.30%) reported for maize flour by Oladunmoye., et al. (2010). Arawande., et al. (2010) also reported fat content of (4.37%) for cowpea seed flours found in Nigeria. These values were higher than the value obtained for asomdwee cowpea in this research. However, in this study fat content of Asomdwee cowpea was (1.00%).
There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the three flours. Asomdwee cowpea flour recorded the highest crude fibre content (3.21%). The least crude fibre content was recorded by soft wheat flour (0.51%). Asomdwee cowpea flour had the highest crude fibre content (3.21%). Butt and Batool (2010) reported crude fiber content of (8.19%) for pigeon pea, (9.58%) cowpea, (4.61%) mungbean and (6.83%) for peas flour.
Crude protein content of the three flour samples (Asomdwee cowpea, Abontem maize and Soft wheat flour) varied between (10.23% and 24.53%) as depicted in Table 1. Asomdwee cowpea had the highest (24.53%) and was significantly different (P < 0.01) from the others. Soft wheat flour recorded the least crude protein of (10.23%) but was not significantly (p > 0.01) different from Abontem maize flour (10.40%). The protein content of asomdwee cowpea (24.53%) was found to be between the range of (20-27 %) reported by Henshaw (2008) for some cowpea varieties and also close to (21.63-25.28%) for four advanced lines of cowpea reported by Asare., et al. (2013). However, the crude protein content of asomdwee cowpea was lower than the (27.88%) reported for cowpea by Butt and Batool (2010).
The difference between the cowpea and maize was not statically significant (p>0.01). The carbohydrate content of the flours for cowpea and wheat flours was comparable to (57.17%) for cowpea, (74.22%) for wheat; reported by Ahmed and Campbell, (2012). Owiah, (2013) reported carbohydrate content of (76.54% and 77.54%) for abontem and Golden jubilee maize flours respectively.
|Flour Type||Crude protein||Crude fibre||Moisture content||Ash||Fat||Carbohydrate|
The authors declares no conflict of interest
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